Documentation

How JavaScript Modules are Formatted for AMD

Liferay AMD Loader is based on the AMD specification. All modules inside an npm OSGi bundle must be in AMD format. This is done for CommonJS modules by wrapping the module code inside a define call. The liferay-npm-bundler helps automate this process by wrapping the module for you. You can learn more about the structure below in OSGi Bundles and npm Package Structure.

  • my-bundle/

    • META-INF/

      • resources/

        • package.json

          • name: my-bundle-package

          • version: 1.0.0

          • main: lib/index

          • dependencies:

            • my-bundle-package$isarray: 2.0.0

            • my-bundle-package$isobject: 2.1.0

        • lib/

          • index.js

        • node_modules/

          • my-bundle-package$isobject@2.1.0/

            • package.json

              • name: my-bundle-package$isobject

              • version: 2.1.0

              • main: lib/index

              • dependencies:

                • my-bundle-package$isarray: 1.0.0

          • my-bundle-package$isarray@1.0.0/

            • package.json

              • name: my-bundle-package$isarray

              • version: 1.0.0

          • my-bundle-package$isarray@2.0.0/

            • package.json

              • name: my-bundle-package$isarray

              • version: 2.0.0

For example, the my-bundle-package$isobject@2.1.0 package’s index.js file contains the following code:

'use strict';

var isArray = require('my-bundle-package$isarray');

module.exports = function isObject(val) {
    return val != null && typeof val === 'object' && isArray(val) === false;
};

The updated module code configured for AMD format is shown below:

define(
    '[email protected]/index', 
    ['module', 'require', 'my-bundle-package$isarray'], 
    function (module, require) {
        'use strict';

        var define = undefined;

        var isArray = require('my-bundle-package$isarray');

        module.exports = function isObject(val) {
            return val != null && typeof val === 'object' 
            && isArray(val) === false;
        };
    }
);

Note

The module’s name must be based on its package, version, and file path (for example my-bundle-package$isobject@2.1.0/index), otherwise Liferay AMD Loader can’t find it.

Note the module’s dependencies: ['module', 'require', 'my-bundle-package$isarray'].

module and require must be used to get a reference to the module.exports object and the local require function, as defined in the AMD specification.

The subsequent dependencies state the modules on which this module depends. Note that my-bundle-package$isarray in the example is not a package but rather an alias of the my-bundle-package$isarray package’s main module (thus, it is equivalent to my-bundle-package$isarray/index).

Also note that there is enough information in the package.json files to know that my-bundle-package$isarray refers to my-bundle-package$isarray/index, but also that it must be resolved to version 1.0.0 of such package, i.e., that my-bundle-package$isarray/index in this case refers to my-bundle-package$isarray@1.0.0/index.

You may also have noted the var define = undefined; addition to the top of the file. This is introduced by liferay-npm-bundler to make the module think that it is inside a CommonJS environment (instead of an AMD one). This is because some npm packages are written in UMD format and, because we are wrapping it inside our AMD define() call, we don’t want them to execute their own define() but prefer them to take the CommonJS path, where the exports are done through the module.exports global.

Now you have a better understanding of how liferay-npm-bundler formats JavaScript modules for AMD!